Academic research is a scientific process. It fulfils the scientific criteria of inquiry and critical analysis. The scientific approach in academic research uses inductive and deductive techniques to decipher the truth. Similarly, evidence in academic research also requires the application of scientific techniques. All information is not evidence as per the scientific criteria. For example, the scientific process does not consider opinions as evidence in academic research. Researchers have to select valid evidence to strengthen their claims.
Most importantly, they have to provide scientific explanations of evidence in academic research. A scientific explanation of evidence in academic research adds value to the research. However, every researcher needs to know the importance of scientific explanation of evidence in academic research. This article at Business Market News will tell you everything you need to know about a scientific explanation of evidence in academic research.
What is a scientific explanation of evidence in academic research?
A scientific explanation of the evidence is the process of critical evaluation of evidence. Humans attributed natural occurrences to supernatural beings in pre-historic times. Also, the concept of causation was not developed yet. Every natural and social activity was evaluated based on superstitions. But the evolution of logic and scientific explanations transformed the way we look at the world. A scientific explanation of evidence in academic research is a rigorous examination of collected data. It subjects the facts and observations to rigorous testing.
A scientific explanation of evidence in academic research seeks to validate or refute the assumptions. Scientific explanation examines whether the stated hypothesis is consistent with the observations or not. If the observations are consistent with the stated hypotheses, then the hypotheses are validated and generate new theories and concepts. These theories and concepts can become scientific law if they withstand the onslaught of counterevidence over a period. In a scientific explanation given by masters dissertation writing services, evidence uses logical methods to corroborate the assumptions. It also builds logical connections between the evidence.
What is the importance of the scientific explanation of evidence in academic research?
A scientific explanation of evidence in academic research has crucial importance. Firstly, academic research is a process of adding value to the literature. Research that uses scientific explanations of evidence is accurate and credible. However, the scientific explanation involves testability and falsifiability of evidence. Karl Popper stipulated that the qualifying criterion for a theory is falsifiability. A theory is not correct if only validated through supporting evidence and claims. There are some facts and evidence that are undiscovered.
A theory has to go through a rigorous testing process over time. But, the inclusion of counterfactual evidence fulfils the falsifiability criteria. Based on these premises, scientific explanation of evidence in academic research requires evaluation. It is not enough to explain the supporting evidence only in academic research. But the researcher must include and explain the counterfactual evidence and observations. It strengthens the claims of the researcher and adds credibility to the research.
What are the two primary techniques in the scientific explanation of evidence in academic research?
Induction and deduction are the two primary techniques for providing a scientific explanation of evidence in academic research.
Induction refers to the logical and scientific explanation of evidence in academic research. The induction technique involves moving from particulars to universals. Particulars are the observable facts and observations gathered through the five senses. Induction has paramount significance in the scientific evaluation of evidence. However, induction is the process of drawing inferences from particulars and leading to generalisations. The process entails the formulation of a hypothesis and collecting data to refute or invalidate the hypothesis. Also, the premises or hypotheses are tested against the collected evidence using statistical tools and analysis.
The induction technique is a bottom-up approach that moves from the specific to the general. These generalisations transform into concepts, theories, and scientific laws. Also, they can predict the future outcomes or behaviour of a specific natural or social phenomenon. Induction is a scientific explanation of evidence in academic research. It entails identifying underlying data patterns. It requires the discovery of connections and relationships between different data points.
Also, induction for evaluating evidence requires an ability to draw valid inferences from the evidence. The inferences must be logical and consistent with the evidence. It also demands that the researcher gather complete data. A complete set of data can draw valid inferences from the data. The inductive technique does not always lead to accurate conclusions. The inductive technique leads to a probable or approximate conclusion. Also, it ensures objectivity and removes researcher bias. Scientific explanation ensures that the explanations are consistent and logical.
A scientific explanation of evidence in academic research and the application of inductive logic requires statistical tools and methods. Also, academics have to use statistical methods for data analysis and evaluation. They can use descriptive and inferential statistics to explain the evidence. Descriptive statistics summarise the data. Inferential statistics draw inferences from the data and corroborate them with the initial assumptions. The usage of statistical tools for a scientific explanation of evidence involves the application of the following things:
- Measures of Central Tendency
- Measures of Dispersion
- Standard deviation and data distribution measures
- Frequency distribution tables
- Bar charts, graphs, and scatter plots to visualise the data
- Linear and regression analysis
- Analysis of Variance
Deduction is also a technique used in the scientific explanation of evidence in academic research. The deduction is a logical process that involves moving from general to particular. The general component of deductive technique refers to the universals such as concepts and established theories or scientific laws. Firstly, deductive logic begins with the premises proven through observations and the inductive method. Secondly, it is a top-down approach to explaining evidence. However, the process entails the application of the theoretical framework to analyse a research problem and generate a specific hypothesis. It serves as the foundation for quantitative research that other researchers can conduct to generate a new theory.
A scientific explanation of the evidence is crucial for enhancing the credibility of the research. Non-scientific explanations of evidence are unreliable, and they are opinionated and subjective. Also, researchers can follow the guidelines mentioned above for incorporating scientific evidence into their research.